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Steven Rado:

THE IDEAL GAS MODEL OF THE AETHER

 
In the first three centuries of Experimental Physics human comprehension about the physical world evolved more than in the 300 millennia before. Nevertheless, there was a fundamental initial contradiction between Galileo's metaphysical principle of Inertia and the purely mechanistic world-views of Descartes, Huygens and other great thinkers. While the Principle of Inertia required totally empty space, a featureless void in which material objects could move forever without friction or resistance, Descartes and Huygens postulated that space must be filled with an allpervading gaseous Aether in order to explain the action at a distance force of gravity and the propagation of light throughout the space of the Cosmos. This internal contradiction in the foundation of classical theories was not recognized for three centuries. The oversight originated from Newton's appearance in Natural Philosophy with the refutal of Descartes solar vortex theory, his introduction of the corpuscular theory of light, and the axiomatization of mechanics based on Galileo's Principle of Inertia. These theories required that all space is void; the basis upon which Newton successfully incorporated his earthly and celestial mechanics. With the mathematical innovation of differential calculus, Newton presented most straightforward justification and predictability of the simple laws of mechanics and their application with respect to Kepler's laws of planetary motion.
    Descartes, Huygens, Leibnitz and the other proponents of the need for mechanistic comprehension of Natural Laws were soon silenced by the amazing capability of Newton's "mathematical tool" of predicting the outcome of earthly and celestial phenomena even though the causality of those events were humanly incomprehensible.
    Newton clearly stated that "...to suppose that one body may act upon another at a distance through vacuum, without the mediation of anything else"...is unthinkable. He also agreed, that an Aether of unknown characteristics must necessarily exists, however, with his other famous saying of "hypothesis non fingo", he firmly established the acceptability of the force of gravity as an action at a distance and with that, sanctified the superiority of mathematical predictivity over mechanistic comprehension.
    Nevertheless, the Aether theory did not disappear, though it took almost two centuries for the proponents of Huygens' wave theory of light to prove without a doubt, that Newton's corpuscular theory was untenable. In 1801 Young with Fresnel conceptually and mathematically proved that light consists of waves with wavelengths and frequencies just like sound. Thus, Huygens' geometrical principle of wave-propagation became the fundamental tool of optics.
    In the same century Faraday's researches, based upon the existence of the luminiferous Aether, established the theories of electricity and magnetism. Through Oersted's discovery of the magnetic effects of current carrying conductors, the electric and magnetic effects became one combined phenomenon of electromagnetism. Following Faraday's research on the lines and tubes of electric and magnetic forces and collaborating the theories of Coulomb, Ampere and Gauss, ? James C. Maxwell presented the theory of electromagnetic fields for which he gave a simple, complete and elegant mathematical formalism which represents not only the foundation but also the most practical tool of all departments of modern technology and electronics. 
Nevertheless, at that stage of scientific thought something similar happened to the theory of the electromagnetic Aether as did to the gravitational Aether two centuries earlier, when had Newton declared his inability to describe a conveying mechanical medium. Although most scientists of the nineteenth century already accepted the Aether as part of electromagnetic reality, the actual characteristics of a feasible model was still beyond the scope of scientific description. There were too many differing and contradictory requirements in the characteristics of an Aether medium if it was going to explain all mechanically unaccountable action at a distance phenomena.
    For example, Huygens' Principle, based on the sound analogy in a gaseous Aether worked perfectly well in geometrical optics till the discovery of polarization. However, this phenomena forced the acceptance of a new characteristic of the Aether. The only feasible explanation of polarization seemed to be, that light consists of transverse oscillations, like those of the waves on a string. But combined with the enormous speed and frequencies of light, in order to transmit transverse waves, Aether must be thought of as an immensely dense solid, characterized by a thousand-fold restoring force of steel. The lack of an Aethereal explanation for gravitation was merely an un- fulfilled requirement, but the need for a solidified Aether for polarization was totally paradoxical to the eternal motions of heavenly bodies in Newton's Celestial picture.
    Faraday's lines, tubes and fields of forces and Maxwell's vorticity, ideal wheels and displacement current, seemed to strengthen the belief and to help the development of an Aether theory, but history presented a different direction. - It was Maxwell, who first proposed an experiment of measuring the speed of light in different directions on the Earth, which was thought to be moving relative to an all-pervading, motionless medium. Maxwell believed that the various measurements would prove the existence of the Aether. Michelson shared this belief and executed the experiments.
    The general uproar that accompanied Michelson's "Null result" not only showed that most physicists at that time expected that the experiment would be positive, but it also became the "last straw" for a century-long relentless search for a feasible model of the Aether.
    Maxwell died before the Null-result. Now, as we approach the 21st century, his mathematical field theory of electromagnetism is introduced by modern text books either as the final solution for the action at a distance problems, or as a mere mathematical convenience, a mathematical tool like that of Newton's, for calculating the magnitude of forces at different points in empty space.
    The fact is that, thanks to Maxwell we can now predict the strength of a given force at any point in space, but we still have no better idea of how this force travels through that field from one point to the other but by the mystical action at a distance. And there are more perplexities. Electric and magnetic fields are produced transverse to each other and are propagated with the speed of light. Since the phenomenon of polarization seems to require transverse light-waves it is quite natural to assume that the transverse oscillation of light is of electromagnetic origin. Although both electric and magnetic effects are intimately tied to the presence and intervention of matter, in the case of light we we are asked to assume that it propagates by the self-induction of electric and magnetic fields in empty space. - How ?
    "Hypothesis non fingo !" - As in Newton's case, Maxwell's mathematical formalism lives on. How about his Aether ?
    At the turn of this century the hidden duality of classical physics with its cosmic void and all-pervading Aether had burst into a seemingly unresolvable conundrum.
    The simple question whether the Earth's orbital motion relative to a motionless Aether could be detected, by measuring the speed of light in different directions, became a paralyzing paradox. The Michelson-Morley Null-result presented the impossible choice between denying the eternal orbital motion of the earth or denying the existence of a light transmitting Aether....or denying common-sense, classical logic and causality altogether !
    Instead of resolving the dilemma, the emerging revolutionary philosophy of Relativity simply declared that the problem is 0unsolvable by classical laws and common sense causality. Taking the Null-result as irrevocably final evidence, relativity postulated that the speed of light is always measured the same, regardless of the motion of the source or the measurer.
    Eventually this postulate not only rendered the all-pervading Aether superfluous, but fossilized classical physics, remodeled epistemology and inaugurated a new trend of science; Modern Experimental Mathematics.
    This new methodology is based on the fundamental conviction, that the experimental facts of modern physics cannot be, and never could be understood by common logic or classical causality. With this contention, Relativity isolated modern scientific cognition from that of classical physics. Since the predictions of these two methods are irreconcilable, a mathematical transformation had to be innovated by which the "inadequate" classical quantitative predictions could be adjusted to the postulated constancy of the speed of light. The mathematical technique was called the Lorentz Transformation. Once this was in order, a Correspondence Principle was inaugurated, stating that through this transformation method, classical physics becomes a mere part of the more general new theory of Special Relativity.
    The success of this methodology created a wider application of the mathematical transformation method in the form of General Relativity which contemplated to "transform away" Newton's Universal Gravitation and replace the concept of force altogether, using the non-Euclidean geometrico-mathematical concept of thecurvature of empty space in the vicinity of cosmic masses. 
    Another similar creation of Modern Experimental Mathematics was Planck's Quantum Theory and its evolutionary end-product, Quantum Mechanics. This theory was initiated by a "mathemicalinterpolation" of two quite faulty equations, created separately by classical physicists for predicting the experimental curve of the energy distribution of black-body-radiation. In Raleigh's equation the experimental curve was way off at the top, whereas Wien's was way off at the bottom. Planck successfully interpolated these two wrong equations and produced a much closer approximation of the initial experimental curve. The small, but still remaining mismatch, a missing quantity required to really match the curve, was then declared to be a new universal constant; the minimum amount of radiated energy, called Planck's quantum. This theory had also claimed superiority and through another Principle of Correspondence allowed classical physics to become part of this more general theory of quantum radiation and the upcoming new department of Elementary Particle Physics. 
    Thus, together, the mathematical formalisms of Relativity and that of Quantum Mechanics successfully cover the whole realm of theoretical physics. Nevertheless, there existed some controversies between these two giants, thus it remained a small problem how these two theories could be further interpolated.
    Ironically some ninety years later, the gap of controversy has not only widened between these two pillars of modern physics, but the very latest predictions of sophisticated mathematism now reverberates the initial problem between the Galilean empty space and Huygens' all-pervading Aether. Today's Experimental Mathematics simply postulates the necessary existence of "zero point" electromagnetic field oscillations in the "seething vacuum" of empty space; this "zero point fluctuation of electric charges must fill the void," from which particles of matter and anti-matter are to be created.
    So, what is wrong with this as long as we have an all-pervading medium and we can predict the outcome of our experiments ?
    No doubt, there has been a tremendous progress in the quantitative description of Nature both at the macroscopic and microscopic level in the last four centuries. Our observable universe has been stretched out to billions of light-years, we have stepped on the moon, detonated hydrogen bombs, manufactured super-computers theorized energy quanta and discovered 250+ elementary quantum particles. But do we understand any of these? - It seems that since Newton's "mathematical tool" physics passed by our comprehension. From beginning to end we do not understand inertia, momentum, gravity, light, electricity magnetism, relativity, quantum mechanics, probability-waves, matter-waves, super-conductivity, super-luminality. - As Bohr's last famous Copenhagen words conclude; reality does not exists until it is measured.
    Measure what? - An electron is hitting the screen and reality is spontaneously jumping into existence. - But Bohr also postulated, that the last step of quantum mathematics; the procedure of measurement and its result must be translated back to classical language. That is, matter collided with matter; that is, Newtonian mass, motion and collision is measured in three dimensional space in the flow of time. This is the Quantum Mechanical Universe of action at a distance forces in empty space; Experimental Mathematics translated to the concepts of Classical Physics.
    Is it not evident that something fundamental to Natural Philosophy has been lost in this translation? Aren't we missing the most basic reason for science and philosophy, the need to describe reality through causality, logic and understanding ?
    Let us illustrate the crucial difference between Aether and the Zero-point energy field in vacuum through the following evolutionary allegories: 
 
    1. Some three and a half billion years ago in a pond, somewhere on the surface of the sizzling Earth, some conglomerate of amino acid molecules, got accidentally encapsulated by a film of clay molecules. This accident created a temporary boundary between the inside world and the outside world, in the same way as a soap film creates a boundary between the air molecules inside and outside of a soap bubble. Similar accidents happened a few quadrillion times for millions of years and some of these bubbles accidentally hit the evolutionary jackpot, having just the right thickness of the clay film to reach a feeble equilibrium between internal and external pressure. These bubbles became the encapsulated, semi-permanent units of life.
    A billion or so years later this life-unit-bubble reached the complex organism of an Amoeba which achieved the miraculous method of self-locomotion by internally changing the shape of its own bubble. With this it managed to move relative to the external world and soon found the ideal position and depth in the pond where shadow and light and heat gave just the optimum mixture of energy for its survival. Thus, it became able to paddle itself up and down, back and forth and sideways as its survival dictated in the changing environment.
    Evidently, this microscopic blob of life had already recognized a wealth of information about the external world and reality. One might oppose the usage of the term recognition but it can hardly be denied that the Amoeba must have noticed that both itself and its environment were existing in three dimensional space with ups and downs and sideways. Also, it must have sensed the received mixture of heat and light as a changing effect caused by its own locomotion. With this it also sensed to the flow of time, that is, the fact that events at a given place are happening in some kind of definite sequence.
    Thus, the Amoeba lives, acts, reacts and survives in a reality of three dimensional space, one directional sequence of time and some definite causality between its own motion and the temperature; one is the cause, the other is the effect.
    These recognitions were the fundamental preconditions of survival and therefore the Amoebal philosophy has not changed in the course of evolution but was constantly reinforced through the increasing complexity of the conglomerations and specializations of the interacting life-bubbles.
    A couple of billions of years later, somewhere in the Amazon Rain-forest, a monkey of some kind, in its daily food-collecting routine, took a leisurely jump from one tree to the other. The distance between the selected branches was thirty two and a quarter feet, the altitude difference between them was roughly eleven and half feet down. The monkey's weight was 220.3 kilograms and there was also a 44.7 km/sec wind, blowing through the forest at a 72.55° angle against the anticipated trajectory of the jump.
    Well, - this particular monkey has missed that particular branch by an inch-and-one-eight and grabbed the next lower one to the left. - Hm!...Nobody's perfect! - Nevertheless, somewhere in the monkey's awesome data bank, accumulated from the Amoeba on, the whole experimental environment with its initial and final conditions, the experimental result and matching conclusion with all its immense complexity has been recorded for future references.
    Evidently, the procedure of life is nearly equivalent to practicing experimental physics and accumulating applicable conclusions by constantly adjusting the theories of anticipation based on experimental data. All of this, which taking place on an instinctive level is the immensely deep source, origin, evolution and meaning of common sense.
    It follows that if instinct is the right word for the subconscious storage of physical experiences together with the results and conclusions drawn from them, then common sense must be the conceptualized and verbalized translation of the essence of three billion years of evolutionary practice of life...
    This is our sacred inheritance from the eons of time, which was so hastily flicked out of science by Einstein and modern physics.
    In just the last few seconds of evolutionary time ago, Newton succeeded in simplifying, generalizing and axiomaticizing the essence of the physical behavior of all animate and inanimate objects in the three dimensional immovable space and absolute flow of time. This wonder became possible through the evolution of the nervous system during the last hundred thousand years, between the invention of the first axe and Galileo's innovation of the first telescope. Newton seemed to possess the whole data bank, everything that had been accumulated from the Amoeba on. He also used all available innovations; words, concepts, language, intuition, abstraction...you name it...! The whole accumulated knowledge of several civilizations about geometry, algebra and mathematics and elevated up to his own level. He used measuring devices of space and time, Cartesian coordinate systems, astronomical data. But above all, from the simple concepts of push and pull, taken from the living muscle forces of locomotion, he drew a line straight through three and a half billion years of evolution of common sense from the amoeba to the monkey to the human philosopher:
    Length, time, motion, mass, inertia, force, acceleration, gravity - measurable quantities and their mathematically expressible relations. Obviously, Newton's simple Laws of Mechanics were justified by the logic of causality and common sense. 
    2. On the other hand, a member of the most recent stage of homo sapiens, evolved within the last couple of thousand years, a mere evolutionary baby, called the mathematician, can exhibit the following procedure:
    He can set up a scientific observation station on a beach where the ocean and the land meet. He can equip the station with a meter-rod, a clock, a calendar and a couple of thousand rolls of graph-paper and he can start meticulously recording the exact times and distances of the periodic rise and fall of the sea-level relative to the shore. Pursuing this for some years, he can set up a two dimensional Cartesian coordinate system - using rectangular lines, with the x coordinate on the horizontal line, representing time and the y coordinate on the vertical line, representing the position of the waterline. - By this method he will be able to organize the accumulated data and plotting them in the form of a graph. Thereby he is produces an experimental curve, a pictorial information representing the periodic rise and fall of the water-line. - Some punctilious study of this graph brings him to the discovery that the observational curve is almost periodical on a daily basis.
    The next step brings out his real specialty. - An experimental curve represents a complex relationship between two quantities where one is the function of the other. If the position of the water on the shore line is y and its changing with time is x, then y is the function of x. Thus, the relation ship between these two quantities represented by the observational curve can be described by a mathematical equation.
    The simplest example of an experimental curve is a straight line when y is a constant, or when it changes uniformly, but there are an infinite number of possible relations between the two quantities, resulting in complex curves. However, if there exists any kind of repetition in their relation, there is a good chance that it can be expressed by equations.
    Aside from the daily periods of rise and fall the mathematician found the first total repetition of the curve connected to a year, but he also discovered that the daily movement of the water level was not exactly the same in every twenty four hours, but its maximums and minimums slowly changed and repeated themselves in every 28 days. There were also some changes in the curve which were somehow related to the different seasons, ...and so forth...
    Fortunately, these periodical changes within the changes themselves can also be plotted producing yet another graph with another curve which can also be expressed in an equation. In the case of uniform changes he can insert a constant into the equation. If the changes are non-uniform, he simply ads a sub-equation. Thus, it is merely a matter of mathematical ingenuity and perseverance to produce a complex equation which, when it's plotted, reproduces the original observational curve. - Once this wondrous mathematical formula is chiselled to perfection it will describe a phenomenon of Nature, the Ocean Tides. All this is achieved without the slightest knowledge about the roundness or the rotation of the Earth, the existence of the Sun, the orbiting moon, the utilization of Newton's Universal Gravitation, or anything else that the former evolution accumulated. Furthermore, this method requires neither causality, nor common sense nor understanding. This is the wonder of predictivity. 
    Now comes the mathematician philosopher who not only comprehends this sophisticated and elegant mathematical formalism but is also able to explain in laymen's classical language, why these mysterious interpolations of curves and equations should work.
    One interpretation could be the Mythical Monster Hypothesis (MMH) according to which an distant relative of the Loch-Ness monster is living in the Ocean and is breathing in and out trillions of liters of air while swimming through a complex yearly route between the continents. It has a menstrual period of 28 days which heavily effects its breathing. This hypothesis has slight contradictions, but those can be fixed by introducing a few family members of different sizes and habits, and some suiting greek mathematical symbols.
    Another interpretation could be the classical one mentioned earlier. This is the imaginative story of a Solar System with a Sun and an orbiting Earth which mutually pull one another and including the Moon and its 28 days period of orbits around the earth which pulls both the Sun and the Earth and together all three of them pull the ocean...etc.
    The most accepted modern versions, STR (Special Theory of Relativity) and QED (Quantum Electrodynamics) declare that a mathematical theory is simply beyond the comprehension of an average life-bubble. But modern mathematico-philosophy came to the rescue with an allegedly comprehensible interpretation of this Quantum Mechanical curve of Nature, offering the "ultimate solution":
    Light has a dual nature; sometimes waves, sometimes particles. Matter also has a dual nature; sometimes particles, sometimes waves. The added intrigue of this quadruplety of #wave-particles and particle-waves is that no two of these quantum entities can ever be measured at the same time. It's said this may be a paradox but it is not a contradiction (!) and is easily relieved by the simple concept of complementarity which creates a peaceful coexistence between the parts of all dualities. Nevertheless, since we do not know whether we measure a wave-particle or a particle-wave until we measure it and they cannot both have an actual being at the same time, we better deny that they existed before measurement. For this reason, we might as well deny all of reality outside of the instance of measurement. Incidentally, there is a slight problem with this too; according to predicted probability waves, two quantum entities are able to communicate with each other by superluminal signals which is an absolute no-no for both STR and QED. 
    Again,...nobody's perfect! - Except, the legendary monkey must have had an open mind, otherwise we would not be here to ask: Which one makes more sense? - What sense ?
    In the very last nano-second of evolution came the development of an even mightier power of predictivity, the data crunching monsters, known as super-computers. - Now, foretelling the future probabilities for an immense variety of things and their mysterious relationships - mathematicians began to believe that it is only a matter of time when they will possess the Ultimate Equation of the "zero point energy fluctuations of the seething vacuum".
    The "Theory of Everything" (TOE) is already in the owen of science, which will predict the every next and passed second of the whole Universe.
    Then they will truly become the high priests of the religion of #Predictivity. - Foretelling everything and understanding nothing.
    This is where evolution stands right now.
    Nevertheless, Sir Edmund Whittaker already remarked in 1926:
    "It seems absurd to retain the name vacuum for an entity so rich in physical properties, and the historical word Aether may fitly be retained."
    Indeed, the all-pervading random kinetic energy of Huygens' gaseous Aether possessed all the needed characteristics of a seething vacuum. A supermundane ideal gas exerts equal pressure at every point in space from all possible directions, thus producing a zero-point kinetic energy field.
    The real question is, can we really go on without Aether?
    For the last eighty years 99% of the scientific brainpower, experimentation time and money have been invested to prove the internal consistencies of the counter-intuitive aetherless relativistic postulates, attempting to corroborate them with the similarly anti-realistic philosophy of Quantum Mechanics. Despite the evermore sophisticated mathematical predictions of progressively complex experimental data, there has been no reduction in the gap between these two pillars of modern physics. Instead of gaining some deeper understanding of physical reality, there are signs of a gradual dissipation of the human comprehension which has been accumulated through past millennia.
    Thus, it is time to realize that the postulates of modern physics have not offered any solution for the paralyzing problems of the classical era. By now, it should be evident, that the direction of modern experimental mathematics is a recession from everything that science evolved for, and that the solution to those perplexities must be deeply buried in the fossilized body of classical physics. It seems that our only chance is to unwind scientific history to the point where it has derailed from classical logic and common sense. We must defrost classical knowledge digging back as far and deep as necessary to attack those so-called unresolvable problems utilizing the same classical methods, logic and language by which they were created.
    The point is that Modern Physics has finally shown in the seething vacuum, that the mathematics of an action at a distance universe leads back to its own origin. That is, there is no logic, causality, common sense or understanding, not even mathematical predictivity without the abstraction of an underlying, all-pervading, supermundane cosmic medium.
    So, back to the drawing board.
    What model of the Aether should be replace action at a distance ? 

    The religious concept of Creation was the simplest answer to human curiosity about the origin and maintenance of the immense diversity of Natural phenomena. Just a few centuries ago the only answer individually created by God, the ultimate superhuman designer and maintenance wizard of the Universe.
    However, the scientific mind in its present evolutionary state refuses to believe in this miracle. Philosophy and science demonstrate the persevering struggle of human thought to replace this procedure of Creation with some casual chain of events to ex- plain the presently observed organized, systematic diversity of the material world.
    Thus, the basic premise of Natural philosophy became to seek out a theory of reality which could explain the greatest number of diverse phenomena using the least number of fundamental assumptions.
    Without going any further back than the first century B.C., the roman poet Lucretius proposed in his poem "On the Nature of Things" an atomistic view of physical reality. He assumes matter made up of point like atoms which are in constant motion and represent the eternal energy
of the universe. These atoms have inherent different characteristics and interact through random processes in which the Godly intervention becomes unnecessary. This ancient seed of the theory of evolution was the initiation of the atomistic world picture. It was the first natural philosophical attempt to construct the present state of the universe based strictly upon
the chancy interactions between elementary point particles of atoms.
    As science itself evolved in the continuous struggle to find causality and through that, the understanding of Nature, it became more and more evident that atoms cannot be Lucretius' idealized point-like elementary particles. In order to explain their differing inherent characteristics, they must have an internal structure unique from one another. Thus, there must be a lower order of magnitude from which these diversities can be explained through similar chancy processes. Thus, came the search for even moreelementary particles, at even lower order with some unique inherent characteristics which combined would lead to the existence of atoms. Thus, eventually the electron, proton and neutron has been discovered.
    At present, we are investigating a diversity beyond these super elementary particles. So far, we have discovered some 250 elementary entities with different masses, sizes, characteristics and life-spans. In other words, for the sake of explaining these new inherent unique characteristics and internal structures of the 8more than more elementary particles, we are forced to make the next necessary abstractive jump into the next even deeper order
of magnitude. - Well, what could this deeper order be ?
    If we dig down into the core of our present comprehension of Nature, we find that experimental physics is equivalent with experimental mechanics. From Galileo to Maxwell, to Einstein, to Bohr, -  from the simplest to the most sophisticated experiments, - we must measure mechanics. As Bohr interpreted Quantum Mechanics in Copenhagen: Measurement must beclassical; Length, Time and Mass.

    Isn't this an obvious acknowledgement of the fact that the human mind, which evolved in the macroscopic world, can only comprehend the classical language and those fundamental concepts of mechanics ?
    Digging down to an order of magnitude deeper means to search for the most fundamental form of mechanics from which Newton's already perplexing concepts of mass, inertia and force had originated. As Lucretius' abstract atoms were the individual mosaics of the macroscopic
reality, we must search for the building units of the atoms, elementary particles, gravity, electricity, magnetism, radiation - ...and yes, those of the zero point energy fields.
We are looking for an all-pervading medium consisting of the fundamental units of mechanics - particles with no further internal structure and no unique characteristics other than impenetrability and motion. This is the order of magnitude of the all-pervading ideal gas of
the Aether.
    Remember, the classical abstraction of a monatomic ideal gas of Thermodynamics bridges over the macro- and micro-cosmos through the fundamental simplification of Newtonian mechanics. It is a hypothetical system of indistinguishable equal masses of atoms in random eternal motion interacting through perfectly elastic collisions. This classical ideal
gas gave us the wealth of knowledge and the previously non-existent comprehension
and calculability of the phenomena of pressure, temperature, pneumatics, entropy, etc. The statistical mechanics of this ideal gas gave us Thermo-dynamics, the Boltzman constant, Avogardo's number, Maxwell's velocity distribution and many other basics of today's physics. The power of this abstraction established the theories and laws of laminar, rotational and turbulent flows of fluid- and hydro-dynamics.
    Huygens' hypothetical luminous ideal gas of Aether is a supermundane mechanical medium, pervading the cosmos and matter, - consisting of unit masses, the Aethrons, in eternal random motion. Pure matter and pure motion! This is the abstractive foundation of the basic
mechanical measurables of macroscopic physics: Length, Time and Mass. This is the realm of Newtonian Mechanics at its most fundamental level where the concepts of inertia, momentum and force are equivalent with Descartes' philosophical concepts of matter in eternal motion and collision.
    From all foregoing, including the simplicity of the mathematically predicted "fluctuations of zero point energy", it seems that the basic premise of the frantic search of the nineteenth century should be reversed. The question should not be:
    "Which model of the Aether would accommodate all existing theories and interpretations of classical physics?".
    On the contrary, the question should be:
    "What are the hidden misconceptions in classical physics which block the acceptance of the simplest, most fundamentally mechanical, Huygenian ideal gas model of the Aether?"
    Likewise, if wondering whether or not postulating mechanical characteristics for the Aether is a circular logic, - we should rather consider the reciprocal: Newton's still mysterious concepts of macroscopic mechanics would never work if the underlying reality, the all-pervading cosmic medium was not fundamentally mechanical.
    If you happen to agree with some of the foregoing, it will not make you a lonely idiot! We are standing on the shoulders of geniuses just as giant as the temporarily accepted ones. Descartes, Huygens, Leibnitz, Kepler, Faraday, Maxwell and a thousand of others, - failures
only in the eyes of passing scientific politics.
    In its equilibrium state, Aether is the seat of all-pervading isotropic kinetic energy with its equal pressure at each point in space. Call this Zeropoint energy field.
    Local disturbances dissipate in the Aether in the form of compression waves with the speed of light. Call them Electromagnetic radiation.
    Vortical turbulences are condensed by the "atmospheric" pressure of the frictionless Aether and could take up permanent fluid-dynamic flow-patterns like three-dimensional toroids or donut-vortices. Call them Matter, or the condensation of cosmic kinetic energy (E=mc2). 
    There are fluid-dynamic exchanges among the permanent units of matter. Call them Electric and Magnetic Force-fields.
    The constant evolution and coagulation of matter consume the surrounding Aether, which creates turbulence of a higher order of magnitude. This inflow of Aether into the evolving matter can be called the Sink-vortex of Gravitation.
    Thus, the classical concept of Potential Energy is simply the invisible dynamic power of the Aethereal gravitational and electromagnetic flow-fields, which are capable of accelerating free material objects.
    Motion can only be created by motion (Descartes) and only through the individual collisions between Aethrons. Since matter is the various, permanent flow-patterns of the Aether, the quantity of mass can be ex-pressed by the number of Aethrons involved in all particles of an object and flow-patterns of all force-fields keeping them together. - Transferring motion between chunks of matter is still a procedure of individual collisions between immense numbers of individual Aethrons. Though the exchange of kinetic energy proceeds with the speed of light, it takes a definite time, proportional to the number of collisions.
Call this time lag inertia, the chunk of matter, inertial mass and the resulting change in the state of motion of all Aethrons in an object, acceleration.
    The global drifting of an immense number of Aethrons in an Aethereal flow-field or in a solidified chunk of matter, thus becomes the agent that is able to accelerate other objects and named, Force.
    The number of Aethrons involved in each chunk can be multiplied by the macroscopic speed of the body. Call the resulting product momentum.

    Once the classical stumbling blocks removed, it is clearly a question of fluid-dynamic designing. The ideal gas model of the Aether is the road which leads to the unification of all physics and cosmology.
 
 
                         AETHRO-KINEMATICS is an attempt to start this designing.
 

 
 
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