THE IDEAL GAS MODEL OF THE AETHER
In the first
three centuries of Experimental Physics human comprehension about the physical
world evolved more than in the 300 millennia before. Nevertheless, there
was a fundamental initial contradiction between Galileo's metaphysical
principle of Inertia and the purely mechanistic world-views of Descartes,
Huygens and other great thinkers. While the Principle of Inertia required
totally empty space, a featureless void in which material objects could
move forever without friction or resistance, Descartes and Huygens postulated
that space must be filled with an allpervading gaseous Aether in
order to explain the action at a distance force of gravity and the
propagation of light throughout the space of the Cosmos. This internal
contradiction in the foundation of classical theories was not recognized
for three centuries. The oversight originated from Newton's appearance
in Natural Philosophy with the refutal of Descartes solar vortex theory,
his introduction of the corpuscular theory of light, and the axiomatization
of mechanics based on Galileo's Principle of Inertia. These theories required
that all space is void; the basis upon which Newton successfully incorporated
his earthly and celestial mechanics. With the mathematical innovation of
differential calculus, Newton presented most straightforward justification
and predictability of the simple laws of mechanics and their application
with respect to Kepler's laws of planetary motion.
Descartes, Huygens, Leibnitz and the other proponents
of the need for mechanistic comprehension of Natural Laws were soon silenced
by the amazing capability of Newton's "mathematical tool" of predicting
the outcome of earthly and celestial phenomena even though the causality
of those events were humanly incomprehensible.
Newton clearly stated that "...to suppose that one
body may act upon another at a distance through vacuum, without the mediation
of anything else"...is unthinkable. He also agreed, that an Aether of unknown
characteristics must necessarily exists, however, with his other famous
saying of "hypothesis non fingo", he firmly established the acceptability
of the force of gravity as an action at a distance and with that,
sanctified the superiority of mathematical predictivity over mechanistic
Nevertheless, the Aether theory did not disappear,
though it took almost two centuries for the proponents of Huygens' wave
theory of light to prove without a doubt, that Newton's corpuscular theory
was untenable. In 1801 Young with Fresnel conceptually and mathematically
proved that light consists of waves with wavelengths and frequencies just
like sound. Thus, Huygens' geometrical principle of wave-propagation became
the fundamental tool of optics.
In the same century Faraday's researches, based
upon the existence of the luminiferous Aether, established the theories
of electricity and magnetism. Through Oersted's discovery of the magnetic
effects of current carrying conductors, the electric and magnetic effects
became one combined phenomenon of electromagnetism. Following Faraday's
research on the lines and tubes of electric and magnetic forces and collaborating
the theories of Coulomb, Ampere and Gauss, ? James C. Maxwell presented
the theory of electromagnetic fields for which he gave a simple, complete
and elegant mathematical formalism which represents not only the foundation
but also the most practical tool of all departments of modern technology
Nevertheless, at that stage of scientific thought something similar
happened to the theory of the electromagnetic Aether as did to the gravitational
Aether two centuries earlier, when had Newton declared his inability to
describe a conveying mechanical medium. Although most scientists of the
nineteenth century already accepted the Aether as part of electromagnetic
reality, the actual characteristics of a feasible model was still beyond
the scope of scientific description. There were too many differing and
contradictory requirements in the characteristics of an Aether medium if
it was going to explain all mechanically unaccountable action at a distance
For example, Huygens' Principle, based on the sound
analogy in a gaseous Aether worked perfectly well in geometrical optics
till the discovery of polarization. However, this phenomena forced the
acceptance of a new characteristic of the Aether. The only feasible explanation
of polarization seemed to be, that light consists of transverse oscillations,
like those of the waves on a string. But combined with the enormous speed
and frequencies of light, in order to transmit transverse waves, Aether
must be thought of as an immensely dense solid, characterized by a thousand-fold
restoring force of steel. The lack of an Aethereal explanation for gravitation
was merely an un- fulfilled requirement, but the need for a solidified
Aether for polarization was totally paradoxical to the eternal motions
of heavenly bodies in Newton's Celestial picture.
Faraday's lines, tubes and fields of forces and
Maxwell's vorticity, ideal wheels and displacement current, seemed
to strengthen the belief and to help the development of an Aether theory,
but history presented a different direction. - It was Maxwell, who first
proposed an experiment of measuring the speed of light in different directions
on the Earth, which was thought to be moving relative to an all-pervading,
motionless medium. Maxwell believed that the various measurements would
prove the existence of the Aether. Michelson shared this belief and executed
The general uproar that accompanied Michelson's
"Null result" not only showed that most physicists at that time
expected that the experiment would be positive, but it also became the
"last straw" for a century-long relentless search for a feasible model
of the Aether.
Maxwell died before the Null-result. Now, as we
approach the 21st century, his mathematical field theory of electromagnetism
is introduced by modern text books either as the final solution for the
action at a distance problems, or as a mere mathematical convenience, a
mathematical tool like that of Newton's, for calculating the magnitude
of forces at different points in empty space.
The fact is that, thanks to Maxwell we can now predict
the strength of a given force at any point in space, but we still have
no better idea of how this force travels through that field from one point
to the other but by the mystical action at a distance. And there are more
perplexities. Electric and magnetic fields are produced transverse to each
other and are propagated with the speed of light. Since the phenomenon
of polarization seems to require transverse light-waves it is quite natural
to assume that the transverse oscillation of light is of electromagnetic
origin. Although both electric and magnetic effects are intimately tied
to the presence and intervention of matter, in the case of light we we
are asked to assume that it propagates by the self-induction of electric
and magnetic fields in empty space. - How ?
"Hypothesis non fingo !" - As in Newton's
case, Maxwell's mathematical formalism lives on. How about his Aether ?
At the turn of this century the hidden duality of
classical physics with its cosmic void and all-pervading Aether had burst
into a seemingly unresolvable conundrum.
The simple question whether the Earth's orbital
motion relative to a motionless Aether could be detected, by measuring
the speed of light in different directions, became a paralyzing paradox.
The Michelson-Morley Null-result presented the impossible choice
between denying the eternal orbital motion of the earth or denying the
existence of a light transmitting Aether....or denying common-sense, classical
logic and causality altogether !
Instead of resolving the dilemma, the emerging revolutionary
philosophy of Relativity simply declared that the problem is 0unsolvable
by classical laws and common sense causality. Taking the Null-result as
irrevocably final evidence, relativity postulated that the speed of
light is always measured the same, regardless of the motion of the source
or the measurer.
Eventually this postulate not only rendered the
all-pervading Aether superfluous, but fossilized classical physics, remodeled
epistemology and inaugurated a new trend of science; Modern Experimental
This new methodology is based on the fundamental
conviction, that the experimental facts of modern physics cannot be, and
never could be understood by common logic or classical causality. With
this contention, Relativity isolated modern scientific cognition from that
of classical physics. Since the predictions of these two methods are irreconcilable,
a mathematical transformation had to be innovated by which the "inadequate"
classical quantitative predictions could be adjusted to the postulated
constancy of the speed of light. The mathematical technique was called
the Lorentz Transformation. Once this was in order, a Correspondence
Principle was inaugurated, stating that through this transformation
method, classical physics becomes a mere part of the more general new theory
of Special Relativity.
The success of this methodology created a wider
application of the mathematical transformation method in the form of General
Relativity which contemplated to "transform away" Newton's Universal Gravitation
and replace the concept of force altogether, using the non-Euclidean geometrico-mathematical
concept of thecurvature of empty space in the vicinity of cosmic masses.
Another similar creation of Modern Experimental
Mathematics was Planck's Quantum Theory and its evolutionary end-product,
Quantum Mechanics. This theory was initiated by a "mathemicalinterpolation"
of two quite faulty equations, created separately by classical physicists
for predicting the experimental curve of the energy distribution of black-body-radiation.
In Raleigh's equation the experimental curve was way off at the top, whereas
Wien's was way off at the bottom. Planck successfully interpolated these
two wrong equations and produced a much closer approximation of the initial
experimental curve. The small, but still remaining mismatch, a missing
quantity required to really match the curve, was then declared to be a
new universal constant; the minimum amount of radiated energy, called
Planck's quantum. This theory had also claimed superiority and through
another Principle of Correspondence allowed classical physics to become
part of this more general theory of quantum radiation and the upcoming
new department of Elementary Particle Physics.
Thus, together, the mathematical
formalisms of Relativity and that of Quantum Mechanics successfully cover
the whole realm of theoretical physics. Nevertheless, there existed some
controversies between these two giants, thus it remained a small problem
how these two theories could be further interpolated.
Ironically some ninety years later, the gap of controversy
has not only widened between these two pillars of modern physics, but the
very latest predictions of sophisticated mathematism now reverberates the
initial problem between the Galilean empty space and Huygens' all-pervading
Aether. Today's Experimental Mathematics simply postulates the necessary
existence of "zero point" electromagnetic field oscillations in the "seething
vacuum" of empty space; this "zero point fluctuation of electric
charges must fill the void," from which particles of matter and anti-matter
are to be created.
So, what is wrong with this as long as we have an
all-pervading medium and we can predict the outcome of our experiments
No doubt, there has been a tremendous progress in
the quantitative description of Nature both at the macroscopic and microscopic
level in the last four centuries. Our observable universe has been stretched
out to billions of light-years, we have stepped on the moon, detonated
hydrogen bombs, manufactured super-computers theorized energy quanta and
discovered 250+ elementary quantum particles. But do we understand any
of these? - It seems that since Newton's "mathematical tool" physics passed
by our comprehension. From beginning to end we do not understand inertia,
momentum, gravity, light, electricity magnetism, relativity, quantum mechanics,
probability-waves, matter-waves, super-conductivity, super-luminality.
- As Bohr's last famous Copenhagen words conclude; reality does not
exists until it is measured.
Measure what? - An electron is hitting the screen
and reality is spontaneously jumping into existence. - But Bohr also postulated,
that the last step of quantum mathematics; the procedure of measurement
and its result must be translated back to classical language. That is,
matter collided with matter; that is, Newtonian mass, motion and collision
is measured in three dimensional space in the flow of time. This is the
Quantum Mechanical Universe of action at a distance forces in empty
space; Experimental Mathematics translated to the concepts of Classical
Is it not evident that something fundamental to
Natural Philosophy has been lost in this translation? Aren't we missing
the most basic reason for science and philosophy, the need to describe
reality through causality, logic and understanding ?
Let us illustrate the crucial difference between
Aether and the Zero-point energy field in vacuum through the following
1. Some three and a half billion years ago in a
pond, somewhere on the surface of the sizzling Earth, some conglomerate
of amino acid molecules, got accidentally encapsulated by a film of clay
molecules. This accident created a temporary boundary between the inside
world and the outside world, in the same way as a soap film creates a boundary
between the air molecules inside and outside of a soap bubble. Similar
accidents happened a few quadrillion times for millions of years and some
of these bubbles accidentally hit the evolutionary jackpot, having just
the right thickness of the clay film to reach a feeble equilibrium between
internal and external pressure. These bubbles became the encapsulated,
semi-permanent units of life.
A billion or so years later this life-unit-bubble
reached the complex organism of an Amoeba which achieved the miraculous
method of self-locomotion by internally changing the shape of its own bubble.
With this it managed to move relative to the external world and soon found
the ideal position and depth in the pond where shadow and light and heat
gave just the optimum mixture of energy for its survival. Thus, it became
able to paddle itself up and down, back and forth and sideways as
its survival dictated in the changing environment.
Evidently, this microscopic blob of life
had already recognized a wealth of information about the external world
and reality. One might oppose the usage of the term recognition but it
can hardly be denied that the Amoeba must have noticed that both itself
and its environment were existing in three dimensional space with ups and
downs and sideways. Also, it must have sensed the received mixture of heat
and light as a changing effect caused by its own locomotion. With this
it also sensed to the flow of time, that is, the fact that events at a
given place are happening in some kind of definite sequence.
Thus, the Amoeba lives, acts, reacts and survives
in a reality of three dimensional space, one directional sequence of
time and some definite causality between its own motion and the temperature;
one is the cause, the other is the effect.
These recognitions were the fundamental preconditions
of survival and therefore the Amoebal philosophy has not changed in the
course of evolution but was constantly reinforced through the increasing
complexity of the conglomerations and specializations of the interacting
A couple of billions of years later, somewhere in
the Amazon Rain-forest, a monkey of some kind, in its daily food-collecting
routine, took a leisurely jump from one tree to the other. The distance
between the selected branches was thirty two and a quarter feet, the altitude
difference between them was roughly eleven and half feet down. The monkey's
weight was 220.3 kilograms and there was also a 44.7 km/sec wind, blowing
through the forest at a 72.55° angle against the anticipated trajectory
of the jump.
Well, - this particular monkey has missed that particular
branch by an inch-and-one-eight and grabbed the next lower one to the left.
- Hm!...Nobody's perfect! - Nevertheless, somewhere in the monkey's awesome
data bank, accumulated from the Amoeba on, the whole experimental environment
with its initial and final conditions, the experimental result and matching
conclusion with all its immense complexity has been recorded for future
Evidently, the procedure of life is nearly equivalent
to practicing experimental physics and accumulating applicable conclusions
by constantly adjusting the theories of anticipation based on experimental
data. All of this, which taking place on an instinctive level is the immensely
deep source, origin, evolution and meaning of common sense.
It follows that if instinct is the right word for
the subconscious storage of physical experiences together with the results
and conclusions drawn from them, then common sense must be the conceptualized
and verbalized translation of the essence of three billion years of evolutionary
practice of life...
This is our sacred inheritance from the eons of
time, which was so hastily flicked out of science by Einstein and modern
In just the last few seconds of evolutionary time
ago, Newton succeeded in simplifying, generalizing and axiomaticizing the
essence of the physical behavior of all animate and inanimate objects in
the three dimensional immovable space and absolute flow of time. This wonder
became possible through the evolution of the nervous system during the
last hundred thousand years, between the invention of the first axe and
Galileo's innovation of the first telescope. Newton seemed to possess the
whole data bank, everything that had been accumulated from the Amoeba on.
He also used all available innovations; words, concepts, language, intuition,
abstraction...you name it...! The whole accumulated knowledge of several
civilizations about geometry, algebra and mathematics and elevated up to
his own level. He used measuring devices of space and time, Cartesian coordinate
systems, astronomical data. But above all, from the simple concepts of
push and pull, taken from the living muscle forces of locomotion, he drew
a line straight through three and a half billion years of evolution of
common sense from the amoeba to the monkey to the human philosopher:
Length, time, motion, mass, inertia, force, acceleration,
gravity - measurable quantities and their mathematically expressible relations.
Obviously, Newton's simple Laws of Mechanics were justified by the logic
of causality and common sense.
2. On the other hand, a member of the most recent
stage of homo sapiens, evolved within the last couple of thousand years,
a mere evolutionary baby, called the mathematician, can exhibit the following
He can set up a scientific observation station on
a beach where the ocean and the land meet. He can equip the station with
a meter-rod, a clock, a calendar and a couple of thousand rolls of graph-paper
and he can start meticulously recording the exact times and distances of
the periodic rise and fall of the sea-level relative to the shore. Pursuing
this for some years, he can set up a two dimensional Cartesian coordinate
system - using rectangular lines, with the x coordinate on the horizontal
line, representing time and the y coordinate on the vertical line, representing
the position of the waterline. - By this method he will be able to organize
the accumulated data and plotting them in the form of a graph. Thereby
he is produces an experimental curve, a pictorial information representing
the periodic rise and fall of the water-line. - Some punctilious study
of this graph brings him to the discovery that the observational curve
is almost periodical on a daily basis.
The next step brings out his real specialty. - An
experimental curve represents a complex relationship between two quantities
where one is the function of the other. If the position of the water on
the shore line is y and its changing with time is x, then
y is the function of x. Thus, the relation ship between these
two quantities represented by the observational curve can be described
by a mathematical equation.
The simplest example of an experimental curve is
a straight line when y is a constant, or when it changes uniformly, but
there are an infinite number of possible relations between the two quantities,
resulting in complex curves. However, if there exists any kind of repetition
in their relation, there is a good chance that it can be expressed by equations.
Aside from the daily periods of rise and fall the
mathematician found the first total repetition of the curve connected to
a year, but he also discovered that the daily movement of the water level
was not exactly the same in every twenty four hours, but its maximums and
minimums slowly changed and repeated themselves in every 28 days. There
were also some changes in the curve which were somehow related to the different
seasons, ...and so forth...
Fortunately, these periodical changes within the
changes themselves can also be plotted producing yet another graph with
another curve which can also be expressed in an equation. In the case of
uniform changes he can insert a constant into the equation. If the
changes are non-uniform, he simply ads a sub-equation. Thus, it is merely
a matter of mathematical ingenuity and perseverance to produce a complex
equation which, when it's plotted, reproduces the original observational
curve. - Once this wondrous mathematical formula is chiselled to perfection
it will describe a phenomenon of Nature, the Ocean Tides. All this is achieved
without the slightest knowledge about the roundness or the rotation of
the Earth, the existence of the Sun, the orbiting moon, the utilization
of Newton's Universal Gravitation, or anything else that the former evolution
accumulated. Furthermore, this method requires neither causality, nor common
sense nor understanding. This is the wonder of predictivity.
Now comes the mathematician philosopher who
not only comprehends this sophisticated and elegant mathematical formalism
but is also able to explain in laymen's classical language, why these mysterious
interpolations of curves and equations should work.
One interpretation could be the Mythical Monster
Hypothesis (MMH) according to which an distant relative of the Loch-Ness
monster is living in the Ocean and is breathing in and out trillions of
liters of air while swimming through a complex yearly route between the
continents. It has a menstrual period of 28 days which heavily effects
its breathing. This hypothesis has slight contradictions, but those can
be fixed by introducing a few family members of different sizes and habits,
and some suiting greek mathematical symbols.
Another interpretation could be the classical one
mentioned earlier. This is the imaginative story of a Solar System with
a Sun and an orbiting Earth which mutually pull one another and including
the Moon and its 28 days period of orbits around the earth which pulls
both the Sun and the Earth and together all three of them pull the ocean...etc.
The most accepted modern versions, STR (Special
Theory of Relativity) and QED (Quantum Electrodynamics) declare that a
mathematical theory is simply beyond the comprehension of an average life-bubble.
But modern mathematico-philosophy came to the rescue with an allegedly
comprehensible interpretation of this Quantum Mechanical curve of Nature,
offering the "ultimate solution":
Light has a dual nature; sometimes waves, sometimes
particles. Matter also has a dual nature; sometimes particles, sometimes
waves. The added intrigue of this quadruplety of #wave-particles and particle-waves
is that no two of these quantum entities can ever be measured at the same
time. It's said this may be a paradox but it is not a contradiction (!)
and is easily relieved by the simple concept of complementarity which
creates a peaceful coexistence between the parts of all dualities. Nevertheless,
since we do not know whether we measure a wave-particle or a particle-wave
until we measure it and they cannot both have an actual being at the same
time, we better deny that they existed before measurement. For this reason,
we might as well deny all of reality outside of the instance of measurement.
Incidentally, there is a slight problem with this too; according to predicted
probability waves, two quantum entities are able to communicate with each
other by superluminal signals which is an absolute no-no for both STR and
Again,...nobody's perfect! - Except, the legendary
monkey must have had an open mind, otherwise we would not be here to ask:
Which one makes more sense? - What sense ?
In the very last nano-second of evolution came the
development of an even mightier power of predictivity, the data crunching
monsters, known as super-computers. - Now, foretelling the future probabilities
for an immense variety of things and their mysterious relationships - mathematicians
began to believe that it is only a matter of time when they will possess
the Ultimate Equation of the "zero point energy fluctuations of the
The "Theory of Everything" (TOE) is already
in the owen of science, which will predict the every next and passed second
of the whole Universe.
Then they will truly become the high priests of
the religion of #Predictivity. - Foretelling everything and understanding
This is where evolution stands right now.
Nevertheless, Sir Edmund Whittaker already remarked
"It seems absurd to retain the name vacuum for an
entity so rich in physical properties, and the historical word Aether
may fitly be retained."
Indeed, the all-pervading random kinetic energy
of Huygens' gaseous Aether possessed all the needed characteristics of
a seething vacuum. A supermundane ideal gas exerts equal pressure at every
point in space from all possible directions, thus producing a zero-point
kinetic energy field.
The real question is, can we really go on without
For the last eighty years 99% of the scientific
brainpower, experimentation time and money have been invested to prove
the internal consistencies of the counter-intuitive aetherless relativistic
postulates, attempting to corroborate them with the similarly anti-realistic
philosophy of Quantum Mechanics. Despite the evermore sophisticated mathematical
predictions of progressively complex experimental data, there has been
no reduction in the gap between these two pillars of modern physics. Instead
of gaining some deeper understanding of physical reality, there are signs
of a gradual dissipation of the human comprehension which has been accumulated
through past millennia.
Thus, it is time to realize that the postulates
of modern physics have not offered any solution for the paralyzing problems
of the classical era. By now, it should be evident, that the direction
of modern experimental mathematics is a recession from everything that
science evolved for, and that the solution to those perplexities must be
deeply buried in the fossilized body of classical physics. It seems that
our only chance is to unwind scientific history to the point where it has
derailed from classical logic and common sense. We must defrost classical
knowledge digging back as far and deep as necessary to attack those so-called
unresolvable problems utilizing the same classical methods, logic
and language by which they were created.
The point is that Modern Physics has finally shown
in the seething vacuum, that the mathematics of an action at a distance
universe leads back to its own origin. That is, there is no logic, causality,
common sense or understanding, not even mathematical predictivity without
the abstraction of an underlying, all-pervading, supermundane cosmic medium.
So, back to the drawing board.
What model of the Aether should be replace action
at a distance ?
The religious concept of Creation was the simplest
answer to human curiosity about the origin and maintenance of the immense
diversity of Natural phenomena. Just a few centuries ago the only answer
individually created by God, the ultimate superhuman designer and maintenance
wizard of the Universe.
However, the scientific mind in its present evolutionary
state refuses to believe in this miracle. Philosophy and science demonstrate
the persevering struggle of human thought to replace this procedure of
Creation with some casual chain of events to ex- plain the presently observed
organized, systematic diversity of the material world.
Thus, the basic premise of Natural philosophy became
to seek out a theory of reality which could explain the greatest number
of diverse phenomena using the least number of fundamental assumptions.
Without going any further back than the first century
B.C., the roman poet Lucretius proposed in his poem "On the Nature of Things"
an atomistic view of physical reality. He assumes matter made up of point
like atoms which are in constant motion and represent the eternal energy
of the universe. These atoms have inherent different characteristics
and interact through random processes in which the Godly intervention becomes
unnecessary. This ancient seed of the theory of evolution was the initiation
of the atomistic world picture. It was the first natural philosophical
attempt to construct the present state of the universe based strictly upon
the chancy interactions between elementary point particles of atoms.
As science itself evolved in the continuous struggle
to find causality and through that, the understanding of Nature, it became
more and more evident that atoms cannot be Lucretius' idealized point-like
elementary particles. In order to explain their differing inherent characteristics,
they must have an internal structure unique from one another. Thus, there
must be a lower order of magnitude from which these diversities can be
explained through similar chancy processes. Thus, came the search for even
moreelementary particles, at even lower order with some unique inherent
characteristics which combined would lead to the existence of atoms. Thus,
eventually the electron, proton and neutron has been discovered.
At present, we are investigating a diversity beyond
these super elementary particles. So far, we have discovered some
250 elementary entities with different masses, sizes, characteristics and
life-spans. In other words, for the sake of explaining these new inherent
unique characteristics and internal structures of the 8more than more elementary
particles, we are forced to make the next necessary abstractive jump into
the next even deeper order
of magnitude. - Well, what could this deeper order be ?
If we dig down into the core of our present comprehension
of Nature, we find that experimental physics is equivalent with experimental
mechanics. From Galileo to Maxwell, to Einstein, to Bohr, - from
the simplest to the most sophisticated experiments, - we must measure mechanics.
As Bohr interpreted Quantum Mechanics in Copenhagen: Measurement must
beclassical; Length, Time and Mass.
Isn't this an obvious acknowledgement of the fact
that the human mind, which evolved in the macroscopic world, can only comprehend
the classical language and those fundamental concepts of mechanics ?
Digging down to an order of magnitude deeper means
to search for the most fundamental form of mechanics from which Newton's
already perplexing concepts of mass, inertia and force had originated.
As Lucretius' abstract atoms were the individual mosaics of the macroscopic
reality, we must search for the building units of the atoms, elementary
particles, gravity, electricity, magnetism, radiation - ...and yes, those
of the zero point energy fields.
We are looking for an all-pervading medium consisting of the fundamental
units of mechanics - particles with no further internal structure and no
unique characteristics other than impenetrability and motion. This is the
order of magnitude of the all-pervading ideal gas of
Remember, the classical abstraction of a monatomic
ideal gas of Thermodynamics bridges over the macro- and micro-cosmos
through the fundamental simplification of Newtonian mechanics. It is a
hypothetical system of indistinguishable equal masses of atoms in random
eternal motion interacting through perfectly elastic collisions. This classical
gas gave us the wealth of knowledge and the previously non-existent
and calculability of the phenomena of pressure, temperature, pneumatics,
entropy, etc. The statistical mechanics of this ideal gas gave us Thermo-dynamics,
the Boltzman constant, Avogardo's number, Maxwell's velocity distribution
and many other basics of today's physics. The power of this abstraction
established the theories and laws of laminar, rotational and turbulent
flows of fluid- and hydro-dynamics.
Huygens' hypothetical luminous ideal gas of Aether
is a supermundane mechanical medium, pervading the cosmos and matter, -
consisting of unit masses, the Aethrons, in eternal random motion. Pure
matter and pure motion! This is the abstractive foundation of the basic
mechanical measurables of macroscopic physics: Length, Time and Mass.
This is the realm of Newtonian Mechanics at its most fundamental level
where the concepts of inertia, momentum and force are equivalent with Descartes'
philosophical concepts of matter in eternal motion and collision.
From all foregoing, including the simplicity of
the mathematically predicted "fluctuations of zero point energy", it
seems that the basic premise of the frantic search of the nineteenth century
should be reversed. The question should not be:
"Which model of the Aether would accommodate all
existing theories and interpretations of classical physics?".
On the contrary, the question should be:
"What are the hidden misconceptions in classical
physics which block the acceptance of the simplest, most fundamentally
mechanical, Huygenian ideal gas model of the Aether?"
Likewise, if wondering whether or not postulating
mechanical characteristics for the Aether is a circular logic, -
we should rather consider the reciprocal: Newton's still mysterious concepts
of macroscopic mechanics would never work if the underlying reality, the
all-pervading cosmic medium was not fundamentally mechanical.
If you happen to agree with some of the foregoing,
it will not make you a lonely idiot! We are standing on the shoulders of
geniuses just as giant as the temporarily accepted ones. Descartes, Huygens,
Leibnitz, Kepler, Faraday, Maxwell and a thousand of others, - failures
only in the eyes of passing scientific politics.
In its equilibrium state, Aether is the seat of
all-pervading isotropic kinetic energy with its equal pressure at each
point in space. Call this Zeropoint energy field.
Local disturbances dissipate in the Aether in the
form of compression waves with the speed of light. Call them Electromagnetic
Vortical turbulences are condensed by the "atmospheric"
pressure of the frictionless Aether and could take up permanent fluid-dynamic
flow-patterns like three-dimensional toroids or donut-vortices. Call them
Matter, or the condensation of cosmic kinetic energy (E=mc2).
There are fluid-dynamic exchanges among the permanent
units of matter. Call them Electric and Magnetic Force-fields.
The constant evolution and coagulation of matter
consume the surrounding Aether, which creates turbulence of a higher order
of magnitude. This inflow of Aether into the evolving matter can be called
the Sink-vortex of Gravitation.
Thus, the classical concept of Potential Energy
is simply the invisible dynamic power of the Aethereal gravitational
and electromagnetic flow-fields, which are capable of accelerating
free material objects.
Motion can only be created by motion (Descartes)
and only through the individual collisions between Aethrons. Since matter
is the various, permanent flow-patterns of the Aether, the quantity of
mass can be ex-pressed by the number of Aethrons involved in all particles
of an object and flow-patterns of all force-fields keeping them together.
- Transferring motion between chunks of matter is still a procedure of
individual collisions between immense numbers of individual Aethrons. Though
the exchange of kinetic energy proceeds with the speed of light, it takes
a definite time, proportional to the number of collisions.
Call this time lag inertia, the chunk of matter, inertial
mass and the resulting change in the state of motion of all Aethrons
in an object, acceleration.
The global drifting of an immense number of Aethrons
in an Aethereal flow-field or in a solidified chunk of matter, thus becomes
the agent that is able to accelerate other objects and named, Force.
The number of Aethrons involved in each chunk can
be multiplied by the macroscopic speed of the body. Call the resulting
Once the classical stumbling blocks removed, it
is clearly a question of fluid-dynamic designing. The ideal gas model of
the Aether is the road which leads to the unification of all physics and
AETHRO-KINEMATICS is an attempt to start