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STEVEN RADO
The Evolutionary Theory of Matter

I. THE DONUT VORTEX
     For the generation, which has been educated in the 20th century's anti-mechanic and anti-common-sense atmosphere, the following reminder seems to be necessary:
     In the eighteenth century, during the development of the electromagnetic theory based on Faraday's concepts of lines, tubes and fields of forces, for each and everyone of the active geniuses of physics, the Aether medium was a totally accepted part of the physical reality. Just as it was known that the kinetic energy of the molecules of the air creates physical sensations, like wind and sound, it was also known that the kinetic energy of the Aether communicates with our senses through the phenomena of light, heat, electricity and magnetism. Aether had been accepted as a frictionless gas at a supermundane order of magnitude.
     During the evolution of scientific theories the mechanical analogies for some complex phenomena always served as simplified conceptual models, from which the final mathematical expressions could be derived. One of the greatest achievement of this method was the electromagnetic theory.
     To make this method sufficiently clear, a typical example of the scientific procedure is quoted below :
     "It was therefore natural to identify the density of the medium (Aether) at any place with the magnetic permeability, and the circumferencial velocity of the vortices with the magnetic force.
     "But the objection to the proposed analogy now presents itself. Since two neighboring vortices rotate in the same direction, the particles in the circumference of one vortex must be moving in the opposite direction to the particles contiguous to them in the circumference of the other vortex; and it seems therefore, as if the motion would be discontinuous. Maxwell escaped from this difficulty by imitating a well-known mechanical arrangement.
     "When it is desired that two wheels should revolve in the same sense, an idle wheel is inserted between them so as to be in gear with both. The model of the electromagnetic field to which Maxwell arrived by the introduction of this device greatly resembles that proposed by Bernoulli in 1736. He supposed a layer of particles, acting as idle wheels, to be interposed between each vortex and the next, and to roll without sliding on the vortices; so that each vortex tends to make the neighboring vortices revolve in the same direction as itself. The particles were supposed to be not otherwise constrained, so that the velocity of the center of any particle would be the mean of the circumferencial velocities of the vortices between which it is placed.
     "On comparing the mathematical expression of this system to that which represents Oersted's discovery, (the attraction between current carrying wires), it is seen that the flux of the movable particles interposed between neighboring vortices is the analog of the electric current. "It should be noticed that in Maxwell's model the relation between electric current and magnetic force is secured by a connection which is not of a dynamical, but of purely kinematical character." (Whittaker: Aether and Electricity, 1951 [247])
     ...and so on...until the whole wonder of the mathematical reflections of the internal kinetic energy of Aether and Maxwell's electromagnetic equations were perfected to their final form, giving us our present electronic technology.
     Introducing his General Theory of Relativity, Einstein was forced to reinstate the Aether, stating that:
     "Space without ether is unthinkable on both of the scales of gravitation and the propagation of light-waves"...."without Ether there is no metric".
     Since Aether has been reincarnated by its arch enemy, the kinematics of the electromagnetic field, a characteristic behavior of the Aether medium, should also be reinstated to its original form, as it had been discovered and worked out in details by Faraday and Maxwell. Thus, the "nonsense of the action at a distance" must also be abandoned in the description of electromagnetism. - It follows, that the binding nuclear forces, the attraction and repulsion of elementary particles, the cohesional forces of the molecules and the structural binders of the crystalline lattice in solid matter, all microcosmic lines and fields of forces should be admittedly conveyed through the all-pervading Aether medium.
     Similarly, if Aether is rehabilitated, particle physics should no longer be restricted to sterile mathematical speculations in the unimaginable cosmic void. From this stand point of the existing Aether, all our modern particle accelerators and particle smashers, with today's modern experimenters resemble to the kids in the bath tub, poking the water surface and recognizing an infinite variety of patterns in the flow of the white soap layer. Some patterns are swimming surprisingly far, almost like permanent designs, some others dissipates slowly, some others disappear as soon as they formed in the wake of their fingers. According to their different life spans, these flow-patterns can be recorded, named, grouped and filed into an infinite list of entities, however, due to the internal friction of the water and soap, none of them could really be permanent. Nevertheless, - since the individual Aethrons have no internal structure and exert no forces on one another, - one of the fundamental properties of the ideal fluid of Aether is being totally frictionless.
     As an introduction to the investigation for the causality, origin and maintenance of the gravitational sink-vortex, consider first the possibility, as we have learned about vortices in hydrodynamics, that a similar pattern, once it's formed in the Aether, has no reason to dissipate into randomness again, unless its dynamic structure is destroyed by another dynamic structure.
     It must be emphasized here again, that none of the foregoing or following rough or detailed ideas are claimed to be final solutions. Rather, they are merely heuristic and introductory attempts to express an alternative point of view. Even if they do make sense as they are, the complexity of the phenomena is immense, and it could require decades of research by many, before AETHRO-KINEMATICS will be able to produce the right answers in all details. Donut-ev.jpg
     With this in mind, consider the illustrations of Figure-1, showing a kinematically natural chain of events, triggered by the least possible local disturbance in the isotropy of the medium which eventually could evolve into a locally organized, permanent and autonomous circulatory system of a three-dimensional donut-vortex.
     (a) As the illustration shows, any relative motion between two layers of an isotropic medium can generate local turbulence. The different speeds of the layers shown at the left are equivalent with the opposing relative velocities shown at the right side.
     (b) Under suitable circumstances this relative motion can act as a torque and induce rotational motion. This form of disturbance is called vorticity and it is quite common in moving fluids, especially within the fluid of a large scale vortex, where, due to its differential rotation, each layer of the medium represents a different angular velocity.
     (c) While the torque of the relative motion of the layers acts continuously, a centrifugal tendency of rotation comes into existence. This is simply the nature of motion, that each particle tends to move on a straight path and therefore tends to get out of a circular one. This centrifugal tendency opens up the center of the beginning vortex and creates a local rarefaction in the middle, which then gradually develops into a sink. It follows, that both from the top and bottom of the plane of the vortex, the fluid starts drifting toward the rarefied area of the sink. Let us now assume, that by chance, the flow from the top has a slight advantage and the two drifts of opposite directions collide somewhat below the plane of the vortex.
     (d) The plausible result is a three dimensional donut-shape, rotating and spinning vortex, surrounded and penetrated by endless loops of drifting fluid. In this donut-vortex a certain volume of Aether, an immense number of individual Aethrons, are organized into a complex circulatory system, which, upon reaching the kinematic balance with the isotropic external pressure of the medium, gains permanency both in shape and in substance. Being self-sustaining, the Donut-vortex represents a fixed fundamental quantity of aggregated, kinetic energy, condensed under the constant isotropic pressure and being in equilibrium with its environmental forces. In other words, the sub-microscopic donut-vortex represent a fundamental unit of permanent dynamic formation out of the random medium, which we call, MATTER. It contains a given amount of kinetic energy, which can be expressed by the formula: E=mc^2.
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                                 (a)                                          Figure-2                                           (b)
     (a) - The Earth's magnetic field shows that the flow pattern of the Donut vortex is not totally unfamiliar.
     (b) - Illustrates the potential dynamic coupling between two donut-vortices, oriented in such way that their flow-patterns form an interacting, permanent connection. The new flow pattern of this couple is condensing more Aether. It is now easy to imagine that all kinds of further couplings are possible. For instance; unlike poles (inflow and outflow) could join trough their axes into one sytem. Larger kinematic organisms might be formed out of a whole row of such donuts and a great number of other variations are possible. In all cases, eventually a kinematic equilibrium is reached between the sinks and sources, under the constant external static pressure and the internal elastic cushion of the medium.
     Thus, the sizes of the different loops and flow-fields stabilize and form a permanent unit in that new, higher order of magnitude. Evidently, in the frictionless environment of the Aether, the conservation of the shape, dynamics and the condensation of the substance of these systems under the constant isotropic pressure represent the mechanism of a continuous evolution toward complexity.
    
     (NOTE :
     In a second approximation, which we call 'Aethro-dynamics of Gravity and Electromagnetism', (in work) we found more and more signs about the major importance of the all-pervading isotropic static pressure of the free Aether as a major component of forces acting in all Natural phenomena, including 'The Evolution of Matter'. The permanency of any dynamic condensation of Aether (donut-vortex) is based on the equilibrium state between the dynamic (internal flow) and the static (external) pressure of any system-unit submerged in the isotropic medium (See Bernoulli below).
     It is, therefore, very possible, that this equilibrium state is 'quantized'in the very general meaning. - This means, that one permanent or semi-permanent unit on the 'ultra-sub-elementary particle order of magnitude' always finds its equilibrium, having approx. the same number of Aethrons circulating approx. with the same drift velocity, - as any other similar units. - However, once this quantum is populating, they do not evolve any further as units, but conglomerate by interconnecting each other's circulations.
     This procedure of interconnection, itself is also condensing - and therefore consuming - free Aether into those permanent flow-patterns (force-fields). And all similar procedures of conglomerations are further consumptions.
     Nevertheless, it is also plausible, that in each stage of conglomeration, there exists a higher 'unit-equilibrium' with the external pressure, which again stops the consumption of free Aether at that stage, until they further conglomerate among themselves, or with lower or higher units by further 'force-fields'. - Conglomeration is consumption....)

     ....These procedures of multiple levels of order of magnitudes are going on parallel and simultaneously in the minute and huge cosmic masses and creates the global gravitational consumption. - Hence, our nomenclature of sub-elementary particles, particles, atoms, molecules, galactic super clusters, etc, - could originate from the statistically most permanent equilibrium stages in the general Evolution of Matter out of the free Aether.
    
     It is emphasized here, that none of these ideas claim finality, but rather planned to be the germs of a complete description, which will probably be achieved through elaborate fluid-dynamic designing. For instance, an electron can be a single donut-vortex or similar circulatory pattern, but it could also be a conglomerate of many of them, depending on the requirement of the complex characteristics of an elementary negatively or positively charged particle. The big potential of the donut-vortices is in their interconnectability and that each unit is a magnetic dipole which has its own intake and output. They also have a spin and axis relation (right-hand rule).
     Organized communities of these vortices can be designed, inter-connected in such ways, that the total intake of the system is received from one definite direction, while the output is dispersed in many directions isotropically. Or vice verse; the intake is isotropic and the output is directional. Or both intake and output are directional, or both isotropic.
     There might be ways in this line of designing - if it is needed in further approximation, - to achieve the characteristics of negative, positive and neutral elementary particles. Most likely, this will be achieved by computer simulation based on the kinematical algorithm of the 'ideal gas' of Aether. - The same concept also renders an elementary kinematic pattern for electromagnetic interactions and illustrates the basic kinematic evolution of both electric and magnetic force fields under the constant isotropic pressure; that is, unlike the one-directional drift of the gravitational field toward a single sink (monopole); electric and magnetic fields always result from a sink and source couple, a dipole which is surrounded by a complex circulatory system contained in endless elastic loops between and through the poles.
     It can be seen now, that with sufficient brain-power and research time, especially with the aid of today's computer generated designing, this concept might be extended to simulate all the various electromagnetic forces, giving a conceivable kinematical description of the origin and maintenance of the elementary particles and those of the macrocosmic conglomerates of ponderable matter, and its inertial properties, all based on the ideal gas model of the Aether.
     The fundamental fluid-dynamics of the above described general tendency of condensation of the ideal fkuid of Aether has been discovered by Daniel Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician in the eighteenth century. - He proposed that in a flowing an ideal fluid, the sum of the forces of the static pressure, due to the random motion of the atoms plus the dynamic pressure, due to the motion of the fluid, is a Constant. His simple equation stated, that

                                               p + 1/2 rv2 = constant

where p represents the static pressure applied to the fluid, the term 1/2 rv2 is the kinetic pressure developed in the fluid, r(Greek Rho) is the mass-density of the fluid and v is its velocity.
     This expression is essentially a statement of the principle of the conservation of energy, applied to fluids in motion and the conclusion is that as the velocity of a fluid increases, its static pressure decreases and vice versa.
     The sum of the kinetic energy components in a moving fluid remains constant.
. Ping-pong.jpg      It is a wellknown teaching quiz with regards to Bernoulli's Principle to show the above pind-pong ball experiment, Figure-4/a, and ask the students what do they think would happen when the air stream rushes into the space between the balls? - Figure (b) shows the right answer of the experimental fact that the two balls drawn together because of the stream of air has a lower static pressure and the isotropic pressure of the surrounding air pushes the two balls together.

     Applying all these to the ideal fluid of the Aether, it follows that the dynamic flow pattern of the Donut-vortex which evolved under the constant isotropic pressure of the Aether, is a highly condensed permanent state of the medium in permanent equilibrium between all components of dynamic and static pressures.
     This is then the AETHRO-DYNAMICdescription of a natural tendency of the all-pervading Aether: The condensation of its kinetic energy into the dynamic forms of elementary particles, binding forces, electromagnetic fields, atoms, molecules, crystalline structures, etc.
     A natural, evolutionary condensation of kinetic energy into ponderable matter.
     Therefore, - since the internal kinetic energy of the Aether is proportional to the average speed, cof the Aethrons, - any forceful annihilation of these equilibrium units or the conglomerations of the different units, - called mass, m - is equivalent with the release of their internally condensed kinetic energy which is described by the wellknown mathematical formula: E = mc2.
    

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